The Journalist and the Jihadist – conversations with an Al-Shabaab recruitor

Conflict In Context - Field Notes


US freezes assets of Makaburi in 2012.
US Security Council froze Makaburi’s assets in 2012.

The Journalist and the Jihadist

March 31, 2014 – On a flight from Dubai to Casablanca the 1956 Hitchcock film, The Man Who Knew Too Much, had been playing on the Emirate’s In-flight entertainment.  In the film Jimmy Stewart and Doris Day play a young American couple who get caught up in political intrigue while vacationing in Morocco with their son.
There’s a scene in which the couple is watching a festival in a outdoor market in Marrakech. Out of the crowd an Arab man in a white robe emerges and stumbles across the courtyard collapsing at Jimmy Stewart’s feet. A dagger sticks out of the Arab’s back; he is dead.
I filmed that scene with my IPhone because I’d been interviewing a jihadist for a Daily Beast story.
Sharrif Athmed alias “Makaburi ” had over the course of a month repeatedly told me he’d be assassinated. It was just a matter of time. The scene in the Hitchcock film seemed to reflect the jihadists predicament.
I was anxious to resume my interview with him. I’d met him in Mombasa a month earlier – in late February – and spent three hours interviewing him. I felt safer in his little apartment in Majengo; I was afraid the Kenya police or youths – Al Shabaab sympathizers – armed with rocks were waiting for me outside.
In what would turn out to be the remaining days and hours of his life our interview via Whatsapp exchange lended an intimacy, openness and trust.
I wanted to press him about allegations by the UN Security Council had accused him of being directly related to Al Shabaab, an Al Qaeda-allied “terrorist” group.
He never mentioned the clip from the Hitchcock film The Man Who Knew Too Much that I sent him.
That was on March 31st.
“I’ve been labeled a terrorist, so I cannot travel out of the country,” said the prominent imam, adding that he hardly left his apartment. He said he knew he was a marked man.
He sat like a rooted tree trunk at a desk underneath the black flag with the white Arab script of shuhada and the primitively drawn in white.
He seemed heavier than in photos of him two years previously. His skin seems pasty and lackluster as result of endless days spent indoors.
In 2012 the UN Security Council identified Abubakar Shariff Athmed as a recruiter of young men to fight against the Kenyan armed forces in Somalia. His pulpit became an infamous mosque.
Around him were creature comforts – tubs of Blue Band butter, mini Qurans, large bag of mini-chocolates at his feet. There was an HP printer there, too. His desktop screen-saver featured images of various soldiers or recruits “suspected” terrorists he says the police mutilated, their private parts cut off and stuffed in their mouths.
Others, he said, we’re thrown into a latrine in Voi.
In February, in anticipation of a ‘jihad convention”, police stormed the mosque, fired rounds and tear gas and shot dead up to five young attendees. A policeman was also killed in the scuffle.
I’d been assigned to write about the police raid at the Masjid Musa (renamed Masjid Shuhada) for The Daily Beast . I unexpectedly had the opportunity to meet the vocal prominent cleric, Abubakar Shariff Athmed, alias Makaburi (Swahili for “grave digger”), a suspected ‘terrorist’.
The masjid (‘mosque’) Musa is a reputed incubator of Islamic “radicalization”. Because authorities have identified it as a Jihadist recruitment center it is often referred to as “Makaburi’s mosque”.
In 2012 the UN Security Council published a report linked several Mombasa imams to the Somali militant group Al-Shebab. Makaburi was on that list as a target to freeze his assets and not allow him to travel. For all intents and purposes he is under 24–hour surveillance.
Ever since the report was published most of those named have either “forcefully disappeared’ or gunned down. At the time of this writing up to 20 clerics have been killed or are still missing.
Almost every cleric murder resulted in rioting by youths in the Muslim community of Majengo.
When I meet him in February to discuss the Masjid Musa incident, Makaburi was the only remaining prominent cleric on the UNs list of “targeted terrorists”.
Makaburi lived by himself in a tiny apartment next to the garage and Musa Mosque.
My guide whom I will call John assures me that the cleric has his youth ‘under control’ and that we wouldn’t be harmed. But like me he is jittery and as we pull up next to the bombed out car in front of the garage, he confesses the meeting Makaburi might be dangerous. The image of gangs of angry “radicalized” youths armed with rocks pops to mind, but only a few people strolled by seemingly unfazed by the presence of a mzungu.
One thing Makaburi had made clear to most reporters, particularly after the Westgate Mall attack, was that he knew he was doomed to die sooner or later. I wondered why he was still alive.

– Who is a card-carrying Al-Shabaab member?
-There’s no such thing as a “card-carrying” al-Shabaab member.
But there was a time when many boys went from Kenya to Somalia to fight al-Shabaab. Some came back on assignment here in Kenya after being frustrated by al-Shabaab and when the Kenya government gave amnesty to Shabaab fighters. They started living openly as Al-Shabaab and they started getting killed.
Rogo’s awareness campaigns in Somalia were a threat to the west, he said.
So they took him out. The CIA killed Rogo. How do they do it? They label him a terrorist then a financier. Rogo used to say if you want to kill a dog, label it a stray.”

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“Rogo used to say if you want to kill a dog, label it a stray.”


The UN is being used [by the US]. Some like Sheikh Shariff were once big terrorists in Somalia. When he [Shariff] agreed to the whims of the west and America then he became a patriot. Now he’s living comfortably.

Who or what defines a terrorist?

If I terrorize you aren’t you supposed to get justice for that? If Shariff is a terrorist – killed and murdered – why wasn’t he taken to court and justice done to the victims? But it doesn’t matter as long as you agree with the west.
Rogo was taken to court – it started legitimately but it didn’t work because they couldn’t prove anything against him. So they labeled him a terrorist and killed him.

In 2012 the UN Security Council named Rogo as a suspected terrorist for his role in attempting to bring down an Isreali charter jet as it took off from Mombasa. That was in 2002. He was also accused of financing the rebel group, Al-Shabab.
Makaburi sees I’m struggling to adjust the hijab (scarf) to cover my hair.
“Don’t wear that if you don’t want.”
“I wanteded to show respect.”
“Pretending to be someone or something you’re not is disrespecting yourself. Be yourself.”
“What is your faith?”
“I was – am – an atheist. I believe in a spirit.”
“You are lost.”
“I am not.”
“You’re still looking for yourself.”
“Then I guess I can still be radicalized.”
“Do you like chocolate?”
“Sure,” I shrugged.”Who doesn’t?”
He throws me a snack size chocolate Cadbury candy bar.
Surrounding him are his creature comforts ; Blue Band margarine. Laptop computer crowded with photos of mutilated young men he accuses of police of killing. One features a man with his penis stuffed in his mouth.
He pops a chocolate in his mouth.
He’s significantly larger than from photos two years previously – sporting a sizable “rubber tire” may not be so noticeable in a kanzu – complexion looks pasty from lack of sunlight, eyes puffy. Not surprising since he’s been more or less housebound since 2012 when the UN Security Council named him a suspected terrorist. He said the state could kill him at any time.
The scarf slips off my shoulder exposing my décolletage. I quickly cover up in a protective gesture.
“That’s a sign of modesty, it’s a woman’s instinct to cover up.”
I peel back the wrapper off the melted candy bar. Chocolate’s all over my fingers.
“We no longer have an Arabic culture [in Kenya]. Go to Shela (coastal village near Lamu) — where is the Swahili culture? You see half-naked women running around on the beach”.
He starts rapidly tapping his index finger starts against his desk, probably a nervous twitch from the sugar buzz.
“Women are much sweeter when they’re wrapped up”. He smiles and laughs.”That’s why in Islam they wear the burka.”
He knows that’s not entirely true. His aim seemed to shock.
Abubakar Shariff’s alias ‘Makaburi’ (Swahili for grave digger, an early occupation) was a marked man even before his ally Sheikh Rogo was gunned down. He’d been a staunch ally of the charismatic Rogo for years. Their days were numbered as soon as the UN Security Council identified the pair as ‘targeted terrorists’ in a 2012 security report.
After Rogo’s murder Makaburi became more vocal and preoccupied with his own death.
The idealist in me believes if the marginalized are given voice they may be less inclined to use violence.
The cynic in me suspects that politicians, diplomats and security forces have no intention of giving them voice. They don’t want peace. Peace means no more funding from the west. War is business. If anything they create enemies of the state.
In the remaining days and hours of Abubakar Shariff’s Makaburi’s life we chatted via social network apps about his and his recruits “longing” for death, “terrorism”, war, Erik Prince, and the future security of Kenya.
The conversations I had with Abubaker Shariff ‘Makaburi’ were “intimate” in the sense that he seemed candid and to trust me. Maybe he knew he would soon die and had nothing to lose. He certainly was very public about his “longing for death”, since these extrajudicials gave young jihadists a reason to continue fighting.
In this era of the seemingly endless propaganda dehumanizing Muslims and allowing western-backed security forces to kill with impunity, I wanted to understand his point of view – one that ostensibly represents the majority of coastal Kenyan nationals – and see whether it made any sense, whether he was authentic or whether it was mostly bullshit propaganda.


Soon after we connected via social app, Makaburi sent me four photos of two boys killed after the government issued a shoot to kill policy of any terror suspects connected to the Likoni church killings.

May I ask you….he said.

Shoot, I said.

Mak: Do you see smiles on their faces?

Margot: I see peace and surrender, I suppose. Otherwise, they looked dead.

Mak: Somebody says he sees a smile


3/29/14, 16:09:39: MakJengo: Shot yesterday on shoot to kill orders in likoni on suspected shooters in Likoni church
Margot Kiser: Right I heard about this yesterday; do these boys have names?
Mak: Haven’t gotten them yet
Mak: Nikiyajua nitakutumia in sha Allah
Margot Kiser: Afadali – nataka kuongea na family
Margot Kiser: Thanks
Mak: One is on the run fearing for his life
Margot Kiser: And is the black and white material next to boy w black shirt supposed to be a jihad flag …or??
MakJengo: Don’t know
Mak: I think its another body covered with that cloth with markings
Mak: First and third picture are the same
Margot Kiser: You think they were random targets?
someone said Likoni gunmen could either have been “primed by the state or freelance terrorists”….
3/29/14, 16:19:12: MakJengo: They where not random
Mak: Its a clean up job
Mak: Anybody with terror links will vanish
MakJengo: But i can give u on good authority they had nothing to do with the church affair
Margot Kiser: Right. So, they just kill anyone w links to ideological or operative?
3/29/14, 16:22:47: MakJengo: Or would be operatives would be terrorist would be terror supporters etc
3/29/14, 16:23:31: Margot Kiser: But ideally people should be judged acc to has done not would be

3/29/14, 17:24:44: Margot Kiser: Guess you could say the boy wearing white is smiling

Margot Kiser: No more jihad: does Islam believe in reincarnation?

3/29/14, 17:25:46: MakJengo: Yes

7:25:53: Mak: In heaven

Margot Kiser: What made you turn to “radical” jihad?
MakJengo: In Islam we don’t accept the term “radical” of “moderate”.


3/29/14, 17:48:17: Margot Kiser: How would you describe what’s going on now in Mombasa b Muslims and police/security forces? Is it a dirty war or battle or skirmish?
: Mak: The goverment is afraid of jihad starting in kenya, they think by killing all the players, they can stop it. But it fuels it.
3/29/14, 17:51:48: Margot Kiser: I see — preemptive. But how does the GOK USG not see how it fuels it?
Mak: The ones giving orders dont know any other way
Margot Kiser: Right. all they know is warfare.
Mak: Its if we kill osama we. Kill alqaida way of thinking
Mak: Its if we kill fazul we kill westgate


3/29/14, 16:18:20: Margot Kiser: You think they were random targets?
Someone said Likoni gunmen could either have been “primed by the state or freelance terrorists”….
3/29/14, 16:19:12: MakJengo: They where not random
3/29/14, 16:19:22: MakJengo: Its a clean up job
3/29/14, 16:19:50: MakJengo: Anybody with terror links will vanish
3/29/14, 16:20:48: MakJengo: But i can give u on good authority they had nothing to do with the church affair
3/29/14, 16:21:58: Margot Kiser: Right. So, they just kill anyone w links to ideological or operative?
3/29/14, 16:22:47: MakJengo: Or would be operatives would be terrorist would be terror supporters etc
3/29/14, 16:23:31: Margot Kiser: But ideally people should be judged acc to has done not would be
3/29/14, 16:24:53: Margot Kiser: Do you think security forces are barking up the wrong tree by naming and targeting ideologues?
3/29/14, 16:25:21: Margot Kiser: Instead of operatives
3/29/14, 16:25:40: MakJengo: For us, they are barking. At the right tree.
3/29/14, 16:27:32: Margot Kiser: Right for Muslims in Mbsa and police every tree is the right tree
3/29/14, 16:29:40: MakJengo: When killings are random its good for the jihardis
3/29/14, 16:30:08: MakJengo: The more they kill, more people are convised of jihad as a means of salvation
3/29/14, 16:31:40: Margot Kiser: Vicious barking and biting circle. The more jihadists kill the more reason police have to justify expenditures and shoot to kill policy.

3/29/14, 17:26:04
Margot Kiser: Some people think you are alive because the you’ve been bought by the gov.

3/29/14, 17:30:43: MakJengo: I believe the day i will die has already been ordained, it just hasn’t arrived yet.

3/29/14, 17:31:55: MakJengo: And nobody can stop death, bought or not.

3/29/14, 17:32:01: Margot Kiser: Myself I like to think I control when I die. Which is an illusion.

3/29/14, 17:34:02: MakJengo: Kweli, its an illusion because you are afraid of death, as you don’t know or believe whats going to happen after death. 3/29/14, 17:36:19:

Margot Kiser: I am afraid of death like most. You know most of (western and eastern) economies are built on the lie that one can avoid death — beauty products, diet fads, rhino horn etc 3/29/14, 17:37:19:

MakJengo: Rhino horn does not avert death; it’s for other uses

3/29/14, 17:37:31: Margot Kiser: Right, I’m aware …

3/29/14, 17:39:15: MakJengo: Islam helps us prepare and for some long for Death

3/29/14, 17:40:00: Margot Kiser: Why do some long for death? Life too painful?

3/29/14, 17:41:01: MakJengo: Life is short and decieving, they long for the better life, islam has promised them

3/29/14, 17:42:05: Margot Kiser: And Virgins are waiting? What is waiting for Islamic women when they die?

3/29/14, 17:42:43: MakJengo: Their husbands or better husbands 3/29/14,
Hmm, I thought to myself that seems a raw deal to me. Maybe I’d convert to Islam if I believed dozens of young virgin men were waiting for me on the other side.
17:11:27: Margot Kiser: Right. Please tell me why Rogo’s life as leader and his death (versus those of other assassinated leaders in community) had such a huge effect on people? His death being a watershed moment…. How was he special?

3/29/14, 17:12:24: MakJengo: His character compared to other sheikhs

3/29/14, 17:12:40: MakJengo: The subject he preached

3/29/14, 17:12:57: MakJengo: Humility towards other people

3/29/14, 17:13:34: Margot Kiser: His subject was mainly..,?

3/29/14, MakJengo: Always smiling even to his critics

3/29/14, 17:13:52: MakJengo: Guess

3/29/14, 17:14:00: Margot Kiser: Yes….

3/29/14, 17:14:16: MakJengo: Guess his subject

3/29/14, 17:14:23: Margot Kiser: Killing Americans

3/29/14, 17:14:40: MakJengo: Nope

3/29/14, 17:15:06: MakJengo: Establishing khilafa by Jihad

3/29/14, 17:15:09: Margot Kiser: Well, Kenyans and Americans not shy about shoot to kill “terrorists”

3/29/14, 17:15:24: MakJengo: Americans are not worth killing

3/29/14, 17:15:46: Margot Kiser: Who’s worth killing?

3/29/14, 17:16:11: MakJengo: Men in a battlefield

3/29/14, 17:16:37: Margot Kiser: what’s the current battlefield? Somalia? Or streets of MBSA?

3/29/14, 17:16:51: MakJengo: Americans always hide behind other people

3/29/14, 17:18:05: MakJengo: Somalia is a battlefield, mombasa is for survival

3/29/14, 17:18:05: MakJengo: We have to fight to live

3/29/14, 17:18:05: MakJengo: No justice for us


3/31/14, 16:20:42: Margot Kiser: No, I suppose not. How often you get out of your house?
You were at court the other day I thought I saw.
3/31/14, 16:21:08: MakJengo: No restrictions
3/31/14, 16:28:05: Margot Kiser: But you sense if you go outside too often police may kill you. Especially now w this shoot to kill policy….
3/31/14, 16:28:18: Margot Kiser: So it’s your choice …
3/31/14, 16:29:39: Margot Kiser: Are or were you a sheikh, preacher, imam or cleric?
3/31/14, 16:30:32: MakJengo: I go or don’t go by choice not by being afraid of getting killed. They can do it anytime anywhere. Its not my problem its theirs.
3/31/14, 16:53:45: Margot Kiser: Where or how did you learn to speak and English so well?
3/31/14, 16:54:05: Margot Kiser: speak and write English…
3/31/14, 16:54:54: MakJengo: Dont write so well
3/31/14, 16:55:08: MakJengo: Dont have a good memory
3/31/14, 16:56:06: Margot Kiser: Where or how did you learn?
3/31/14, 16:57:38: MakJengo: Maybe in school
3/31/14, 16:57:57: MakJengo: Used to love reading
3/31/14, 16:58:01: Margot Kiser: Reading alot too I suppose
3/31/14, 16:58:40: Margot Kiser: Why “used to”? Reading is the best way to learn to write.
3/31/14, 17:00:14: Margot Kiser: You don’t have”readers” those cheap non prescription reading glasses.
3/31/14, 17:00:17: Margot Kiser: ?
3/31/14, 17:00:31: MakJengo: No
3/31/14, 17:04:13: Margot Kiser: They cost maybe 2,000 or so at Nakumatt or some optician shop in a mall. Theyre more or less same strength lens. Just Magnifying glasses. Prescription glasses cost Mingi times more.
What did you like to read? Can you recite Quran ?
What else did you like to read?
3/31/14, 17:05:41: MakJengo: Nakumat
3/31/14, 17:06:54: Margot Kiser: Depends on which Nakumatt.
3/31/14, 17:07:18: MakJengo: So which nakumat in msa
3/31/14, 17:11:30: Margot Kiser: I would say the fancy one in the big shopping center in Nyali. That’s the only mall I’ve noticed that has an optician.I don’t know the other Nakumatts in MBSA.
3/31/14, 17:12:10: Margot Kiser: There’s one in Likoni right
3/31/14, 17:12:23: Margot Kiser: They’re everywhere these days
3/31/14, 17:12:28: MakJengo: Ok will try kesho
3/31/14, 17:30:06: MakJengo: Eastliegh bomb blast
3/31/14, 17:30:12: MakJengo: Breaking news
3/31/14, 17:32:56: Margot Kiser: Would AS or “sympathizers” bomb their own people?
3/31/14, 17:33:41: Margot Kiser: Trying to find. No KTN here….
3/31/14, 17:34:11: MakJengo: No

3/31/14, 18:04:47: MakJengo: Where does ur husband fit in ur life

3/31/14, 18:05:28: Margot Kiser: Don’t ask
3/31/14, 18:06:35: MakJengo: Pole if i touched a nerve
3/31/14, 18:07:06: Margot Kiser: It’s ok.
We are estranged.
3/31/14, 18:07:22: MakJengo: Pole sana
3/31/14, 18:07:33: Margot Kiser: Thanks

Mak What do you expect after death?

Margot Kiser I am trying to lower my expectations these days. I try not to think about death.

Mak You should always think about death. If I was always thinking of death I wouldn’t be living.MakJengo: you would be living more fully.
Mak: Death is the ultimate policeman for the god-fearing man

Please tell me how did you get on that 2012 UN list of targets and financiers?

3/29/14, 19:55:27: MakJengo: Its all lies dont have the cash to even finance a reporter like u let alone al shabab
3/29/14, 19:56:19: MakJengo: I think its the NSIS who profiled us as financiers and the un just copied and pasted.
3/29/14, 20:37:30: Margot Kiser: In other words these imams you hear about (Bahero eg the other day) because they’re in a position of influence and must chose one side or the other
3/29/14, 20:37:52: Margot Kiser: Hence the “Youths” ousting the moderates right?
3/29/14, 20:39:10: MakJengo: Idris was not ousted for that reason, dont believe the papers
3/29/14, 20:39:50: Margot Kiser: Where do you stand? How do you remain neutral? Surely you must be in same boat, as it were? You could be as easily killed by suspicious youths as gov no?
3/29/14, 20:40:26: MakJengo: Youths no, gava yes
3/29/14, 20:41:14: Margot Kiser: So exactly who is “ousting the moderates”?
3/29/14, 20:41:30: MakJengo: Nobody
3/29/14, 20:42:25: Margot Kiser: Your friend the activist Z says the youth aren’t that angry. Hmm wonder why was Idris ousted?
3/29/14, 20:43:21: MakJengo: He was not only ousted by the youth but also by his own congregation who are modetate
3/29/14, 20:43:53: MakJengo: And he does not know the youth in msa
3/29/14, 20:44:20: Margot Kiser: Ok he’s a NBI guy ….
3/29/14, 20:45:35: MakJengo: Yap
3/29/14, 20:46:47: MakJengo: This is the problem, everybody speaks for the youth but the youth.

3/31/14, 18:45:21: Margot Kiser: a lot of the things you say make sense to me eg: why should it be legal for other govs to kill suspected ‘terrorists’ but not legal for Muslims or any members of an oppressed group to defend themselves from aggressors. Are you guilty of any of the accusations leveled at you by UN/US? am quoting much of this almost directly from the 2012 report : Makaburi is alleged to be a leading facilitator and recruiter of young Kenyan Muslims for ‘violent military activity in Somalia’. He’s accused of providing material support to extremist groups in Kenya and for frequently traveling to al-Shabaab strongholds in Somalia to meet w extremists leaders. Makaburi has been known to preach at Mussa mosque “that young men should travel there [to Somalia], commit extremist acts, fight for al Qaida and kill US citizens.” Any of these specific accusations true?

3/31/14, 18:46:13: Mak: Some are

Margot Kiser: …..

Mak: Some are bullshit

Mak: Go to somalia to fight jihad yes

Margot Kiser: Which are bullshit?

3/31/14, 18:47:18: Mak: Commit extremist acts……..

3/31/14, 18:47:30: Margot Kiser: Kill Americans?

3/31/14, 18:47:29: Mak: Finance

3/31/14, 18:47:30: MakJengo: ..

3/31/14, 18:47:46: MakJengo: Kill Americans…….

3/31/14, 18:47:53: Mak: Let me ask u

3/31/14, 18:48:07: Margot Kiser: Shoot

3/31/14, 18:48:39: Mak: Americans are invading other peoples lands, taking them prisoner, torturing them.

3/31/14, 18:17:04: Margot Kiser: Are you trying to convert me?

Mak: Nobody can convert u except u

Margot Kiser: That’s sounds like something a preacher might say

Mak: Well i am not a preacher

Mak: I am a terrorist remember

Mak: With no significance.

Makaburi and his lawyer leaving court the week before he died. Kenya court had just awarded him damages for violation of his rights when police raided his house in 2011
Makaburi and his lawyer leaving court the week before he died. Kenya court had just awarded him damages for violation of his rights when police raided his house in 2011

So, Makaburi “admits” he’s a terrorist and that it’s justifiable for Islam to retaliate. His use of the loaded word ‘terrorist’ was ironic. Some feel he was no more of a terrorist than the police and governments who have harassed him and the Muslim communities worldwide since 9/11. His irony however would have been entirely lost on whoever it was monitoring him.

Somewhat spookily, the day before he died I sent him a clip from a movie on the plane which happened to be “The Man who Knew to Much” with Jimmy Stewart and Doris Day, set in Marrakech. Stewart and Day are wandering around the medina when An Arab man staggers toward them and falls down in front of him. He’d been knifed in the back and we’d been wearing black face.

3/31/14, 16:07:11: Margot Kiser: beea5126f9a39025d66539e37b650646.MOV
3/31/14, 16:08:19: Margot Kiser: I’m in Moroco where I’ve never been and on the plane stumbled upon this famous film from 50s that takes place in Casablanca.
3/31/14, 16:09:18: MakJengo: U really get arround
3/31/14, 16:12:28: Margot Kiser: Have been meaning to visit here for a long time.
I rarely stay in one place long anyway.
3/31/14, 16:13:50: Margot Kiser: Have you been to North Africa?
3/31/14, 16:14:05: MakJengo: Never
3/31/14, 16:14:25: MakJengo: And now never will.


Makaburi's father, who died while he was a "child still crawling."
Makaburi’s father, who died while he was a “child still crawling.”


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